Same as Air
in 1941, ACI is an indispensable tool for Air Freight, Air Cargo and Freight
Forwarders alike. ACI publishes a quarterly directory of trucking services.
Listing points served in the United States and Canada and the applicable pickup
and delivery rates. Other services in the directory include listing Line
Haulers, Couriers and Customs Brokers at the airport(s) that they service. ACI
offers its data in a completely searchable format on the website,
www.air-cargo-inc.com. The ACI website displays the nearest airports to points,
driving mileage from point to airport and links to all of our carriers. ACI has
over 100,000 standard postal zip codes in the US and Canada to search from.
for which the airline provides a guaranteed level of expedited service, such as
overnight, at a premium charge. It may be restricted as to package weight and
other than mail. Express, or passenger baggage tendered to an airline for
organization which serves the dual role of air carrier (usually indirect) and
shipper. To the shipper the air freight forwarder is an indirect air carrier
because it receives freight under its own tariff, yet does not actually operate
the airplanes. The air freight forwarder provides pick-up and delivery service
to and from the shippers dock, consolidates shipments into larger units,
prepares shipping documentation and tenders shipments to the airlines. To the
airlines, the air freight forwarder is a shipper. Ordinarily an air freight
forwarder is classed as an indirect air carrier, however, some air freight
forwarders operate their own aircraft.
Tariff Publishing Co. (ATPCO)
airline industry tariffs setting forth rates and rules applicable to air
freight. Tariffs are available on a subscription basis.
Postal Service facility located on or adjacent to an airport that is primarily
engaged in the dispatch, receipt, and transfer of mail directly with air
service from airport of origin to airport of destination, without pick-up and
Transport Association of America (ATA)
A trade and
service organization for U.S. scheduled airlines. In the cargo field, ATA works
with the airlines, the Government, and shippers in developing improved
standards and techniques in all phases of air cargo. ATA is an authoritative
source of information on cargo matters such as air freight packaging practices,
automation, data on air freight growth and statistical data on air cargo
document used by the airlines for air freight. It serves as a contract for
carriage and includes carrier conditions of carriage such as limits of
liability and claims procedures. The air waybill also contains shipping
instructions to the airline, a description of the commodity, and applicable
transportation charges. The airline industry has adopted a standard formatted
air waybill that accommodates both domestic and international traffic.
Cabin Load (ACL)
payload weight that can be carried on an airplane on a specific route segment
under a specific set of operation conditions.
Extraordinary Value (A.E.V.)
identified as high value items.
Proof of Delivery (P.O.D.)
automatically sent to payer containing name of person who signed for the
package with date and time of delivery.
personal property or other passenger articles transported in connection with a
journey. Unless otherwise specified, it includes both checked and unchecked
vehicles used for ramp transport of bulk freight, baggage, and mail.
located beneath the cabin of an aircraft and used for the carriage of cargo and
equipped with an adjustable height belt conveyor designed for loading/unloading
by which a carrier receipts for goods and contracts to move them. In air
freight, the air waybill serves as the bill of lading and is the contract for
terminal approved by the U.S. Treasury Department for storage of goods until
Customs duties are paid or the goods are otherwise released.
or unpacking a consolidated shipment for delivery or for reconsignment.
not unitized, not loaded in containers or on pallets.
which transfer the bulk cargo from the airplane to the cargo handling terminal
or to other airport locations.
as loose pieces into airplane compartments.
the carriage of cargo only, rather than the combination of passengers and
cargo. Cargo aircraft carry palletized or containerized traffic on the main
deck and either unitized or bulk cargo on the lower deck. Cargo aircraft are
normally equipped with special cargo loading systems on the main deck. Also
referred to as freighters or all-cargo aircraft.
appointed by an airline to solicit and process international air freight for
shipments. Cargo agents are paid commissions by the airline.
equipment with elevation platforms and powered rollers for loading/ unloading
ULDs on airplane main decks or lower lobes. It may be “scissor” or “post”
design, or a forklift equipped with a non- powered roller platform.
service operator who provides pickup and delivery in areas not served directly
by air carrier.
of the shipment used in determining air freight charges. The chargeable weight
may be the dimensional weight or the actual scale weight of the shipment. See
charges may include pickup and/or delivery and are entered on the air waybill
to be collected from the consigned. Equivalent terms are “freight collect” or
temporary hiring of an aircraft, usually on a trip basis, for the movement of
cargo or passengers.
digit of the air waybill number used to insure that the air waybill number is
correctly entered into a computer system.
Aeronautics Board (CAB)
agency created by Congress in 1938 to promote the development of the U.S. air
transport system, to award air routes, and to regulate passengers fares and
cargo rates. Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1978 terminated the
CAB, effective January 1, 1985. Many of the CAB functions were transferred to
the Department of Transportation (DOT).
transportation practice under which the receiver of the goods pays charges. See
transportation service under which the purchase price of the goods in collected
by the carrier from the receiver at the time of delivery. Payment Is
subsequently transmitted to the shipper. Carriers charge a nominal fee for this
service. Payment is due upon delivery. There are no credit provisions in COD
for “company-owned material.” The airlines own property (Spare parts, station
supplies, ticket stock, etc.) carried on the airlines own airplanes.
configured to carry both passengers and unitized cargo on the main deck.
air carriers who transport both passengers and cargo in passenger configured
aircraft, with cargo restricted to the lower deck compartments.
or firm whose name appears on the air waybill as the party to whom the goods
are to be delivered by the carrier.
shipment. A shipment of one or more pieces of property, accepted by the carrier
from one shipper at one time, receipted for in one lot, and moving on one air
or firm whose name appears on the air waybill as the party contracting with the
carrier for carriage of the goods. Usually the shipper.
A number of
separate shipments that have been assembled into one shipment for movement on
one air waybill from one location to another.
that provides consolidation services, joining multiple shipments into a single
shipment fro tender to an air carrier. An Air Freight Forwarder performs the
function of a consolidator.
A unit load
device (ULD) which interfaces directly with the airplane cargo handling and
restraint system. (See Unit Load Device.)
or technique of using a boxlike device (containers) in which a number of
packages are stored, protected, and handled as a single unit in transit.
bottomless, rigid shell made of fiberglass, metal or other suitable material
used in combination with an airplane pallet and net assembly.
A rate for
the transportation of an entire container or ULD at a uniform charge,
regardless of the weight of its content, unless a pivot weight is specified
(See Pivot Weight)
structure that performs the function of a ULD without the use of restraining
A ULD shaped
to fit the airplane envelope to utilize the maximum space available.
unpublished rate established by contractual agreement between a carrier and a
regular shipper, usually linked to a minimum volume requirement over a
specified time period. Contract rates are sometimes a specified percentage
discount of published rates.
which can be converted from an all-passenger configuration to an all-cargo
configuration or vice-versa, or to various configurations of passengers and
coordination and preplanning of schedules and air transport services between
two or more carriers or shippers, often involving interline agreements and
joint rates. Such services may involve the use of all forms of air as well as
who accompanies cargo shipment(s). Also, attendant such as groom or
veterinarian who accompany rare horses or other live animals.
basis stating the minimum density on which weight-based charges are to be
computer (See Dimensional Weight)
capacity within an aircraft or container, expressed either in cubic feet, cubic
inches, cubic centimeters or cubic meters.
A broker who
is certified by the U.S. Bureau of Customs to act for importers and other
businessmen in handling the sequence of Customs formalities and other details
related to the legal importation of goods.
designated government authority that regulates the flow of goods to/from a
country and collects duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The
term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection.
Customs Services court based in New York, NY, consisting of three 3-party
divisions to which importers may appeal or protest classification and value decisions
and certain other actions taken by U.S. Customs Service.
oral or written, attesting to the correctness of description, quantity, value,
etc., of merchandise offered for importation into the United States.
(100 lb). The standard unit used for establishing U.S. domestic cargo rates,
other than specified container rates.
Nation’s official term for Hazardous Materials. Articles or substances which
are capable of posing a significant risk to the health or safety of the general
public when transported by air and which are classified according to the most
current editions of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of
Dangerous Goods by Air and the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. See Hazardous
Value for Carriage
The value of
goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purposes of determining
charges of or establishing the limit of the carrier’s liability for loss,
damage, or delay. See Valuation Charges.
Value for Customs
price of the contents or the replacement cost if the contents are not for resale.
The amount mush be equal to or greater than the declared value.
received for air transportation at a level of service lower than standard
service (e.g., space available) and transported at a lower charge than standard
A rate that
is lower than the corresponding standard rates for a comparable shipment. A
shipper using a deferred rate agrees to accept a lower level or service in
return for the lower rate.
detention of containers by shippers or receives of freight beyond a specified
grace period. The airlines tender carrier owned containers to the customer for
loading and unloading of the unit. In the event the container is not returned
to the carrier within a specified time (usually 36-48 hours) a charge may be
assessed by the carrier for each 24-hour period or fraction there of beyond the
weight per unit of volume. Density is computer by dividing a shipments weight
by its cubic volume. Generally expressed in pounds per cubic foot in the U.S.
of Transportation (DOT)
department of the U.S. Government established by the Department of
Transportation Act of 1966 for the purposes of developing national
transportation policies. As a result of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978,
the Dot acquired many of the functions of the CAB.
Weight (Volume Weight)
weight based on a minimum density requirement. It is used to determine the
freight charges for low dense shipments. It is computed by dividing the
shipment volume by the minimum density requirement. The Dimensional Weight Rule
was developed to insure fair compensation for low-density shipments. When a
given shipment falls below the minimum density requirement, dimensional weight
rather than actual weight is used to calculate the transportation charged.
Minimum density requirements vary from carrier to carrier. Some carriers give
discounts for shipments of high-density goods.
carrier that operates airplanes on a scheduled or contract (charter) basis, or
both, and provides transportation for a charge. An airline as opposed to a
A piece of
equipment used to move containers or pallets around the airport with the aid of
Door to Door
or Dock to Dock
of a shipment from the shipper’s premises (factory, store, warehouse, etc.) to
the consignee’s premises (as opposed to airport to airport).
imposed on imports by the Customs authority of a country. Duties are generally
based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), but may be based on weight
or quantity (specific duties) or a combination of value and other factors
Data Interchange (EDI)
computerized system for communicating information about a shipment, including
tracking and tracing, air waybill information and customs documentation.
refusal to accept traffic for transportation at certain points or in certain
routes due to emergencies, limitation of facilities, or other abnormal
Rates set at
a certain percentage above the general commodity rates because they apply to
commodities that require special handling, such as live animals, human remains,
or automotive vehicles.
document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated
goods to certain destinations.
shipments for which premium (usually overnight) service is provided.
outside measurement, including any handles or other protrusions, on a ULD.
of space a ULD occupies in an airplane, calculated using the extreme external
dimensions of the unit.
Aviation Administration (FAA)
under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 as the Federal Aviation Agency and
charged with the responsibility of promulgation operational standards and
procedures for all classes of aviation in the United States. With the creation
of the cabinet level Department of Transportation in 1966 FAA became a unit
within the new Department and received the new designation Federal Aviation
Administration. The FAA Administrator, however, continues to be a presidential
appointee and the FAA remains a separate entity with most of its former
functions. In the field of air cargo FAA promulgates certain stress standards,
which must be me in the tie down of cargo in flight.
designated by the Government of a country for duty-free entry of any
non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for
manufacturing, etc. within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid.
Duties are imposed on the merchandise (or items manufactured from the
merchandise) only when the goods pass from the foreign trade zone into an area
of the country subject to the Customs authority.
A basis of
pricing meaning the price of goods alongside a transport vessel at a specified
location. The buyer is responsible for loading the goods onto the transport
vessel and pays all the cost of shipping beyond that location.
A term used
in international transportation where the shipper pays all transportation
charges and any applicable duties and/or taxes.
term indication that the quoted price includes the cost of loading the goods
into transport vessels at the specified place.
Commodity Rate (GCR)
freight rate applicable to all commodities except those for which specific
rates have been filed such rates are based on weight and distance and are
published for each pair of cities an airline serves.
not entered within 5 working days after arrival of the carrier and subsequently
stored at the risk and expense of the importer.
weight of a shipment including the weight of containers (tare weight) and
packaging material. On an air waybill, the tare weight (when applicable) and
shipment weight are listed separately.
Government’s official term for Dangerous Goods. Items of freight that are
inherently harmful and classified under Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR). Hazardous Materials may only be transported under certain conditions
relative to packaging, quantity carried, airplane type, location on board the
airplane, etc., and in conformance with applicable rules. Also see Dangerous
to wide-bodied airplanes. Specifically refers to B747, B767, B777, A300, A330,
A340, DC10, MD-11, L-1011, IL-86 & IL-96.
be held at the carrier’s destination location for pickup by the recipient.
route pattern that directs traffic from many cities into a central hub designed
to connect with other flights to final destinations. They system maximizes
fleet utilization by connecting many markets through a central hub with fewer
flights than would be required to connect each pair of cities in a point to
or non-structural container contoured to the dimensions of a standard-body
freighter main deck.
required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of
goods into their individual counties.
to air freight coming into the United States, the term “in Bond” refers to a
procedure under U.S. Customs rules where the clearance of cargo is postponed
until the cargo reaches an inland Customs point rather than subjecting the
cargo to clearance procedures at the first arriving U.S. gateway airport where
process might be more time consuming. The procedure is so named because the
cargo moves under the carrier’s bond (financial liability assured by the
carrier) from the gateway airport and remains “In Bond” until Customs releases
the cargo at the inland Customs point (airport).
carriers are those businesses authorized to receive freight from shippers under
their own tariff, but who utilize certified air carriers (direct air carriers)
to perform the air transportation services. See Air Freight Forwarder.
that provides door-to-door air cargo transportation using its own or contracted
airplanes and motor trucks, and performs this service under the authority of a
singe air waybill (e.g. United Parcel Service and Federal Express).
of a shipment via two or more carriers. See coordinated Movement and Intermodal
goods by more than one mode of Transport, i.e. railroad, truck, ship and
airplane, in the same ULD, under a singe waybill.
capability to transfer a shipment from one mode of transport to another, as
from airplane to highway truck, to railway freight car, to ocean vessel.
Certain aircraft can accommodate large types of standard containers commonly
used in surface transport.
container designed for carriage on airplanes, trucks, rail cars, and ocean
vessels and equipped with corner fittings for restraint on a truck chassis
and/or for lifting by crane or other loading mechanism.
A means of
securing cargo inside a container.
available space within the container or pallet net envelope.
Air Transport Association (IATA)
international trade and service organization for airlines of more than 100
countries serving international routes. IATA activities on behalf of shippers
in international air freight include development of containerization programs,
freight handling techniques and, for some airlines, uniform rates and rules.
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
International Aviation Organization of Governments, ICAO is an agency of the
United Nations. It was organized to insure orderly worldwide technical
development of civil aviation.
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
federation of national standards organizations. “ISO container” denotes a
container equipped with standard ISO corner fittings for lifting or for
retaining on a truck chassis.
through-rate on cargo moving via two or more air carriers or air and surface
Just in Time
principle of production and inventory control that calls for immediate movement
of raw materials, component parts, and work-in-progress. Goods arrive when
needed (just in time) for production or use rather than becoming expensive
inventory that occupies costly warehouse space.
during which the imported merchandise may remain at the place or unloading
without some action being taken for its disposition, i.e., beyond the 5-day
General Order period
on shipment size occasionally used by an airline. The equation used to
calculate length and girth: Length + (2 x width) + (2 x height). The largest
measurement always used as the length in the equation.
issued by a bank at the request of the buyer of goods. The LC guarantees
payment to the seller given receipt by the bank of certain shipping documents
validating the delivery of goods, within a specified time period.
percentage of total available cargo capacity occupied by revenue cargo. It may
be computer on the basis of volume, weight, or ULD capability.
framework in the shape of an airplane interior contour for the purpose of
checking a pallet load on the ground to ensure it will fit into a particular
position in a specific airplane type. Also referred to as a template.
delivered to an airline as separate packages and loaded and unloaded onto
airplanes (or ULDs) by airline employees, and then delivered as separate pieces
to the consigned. See Bulk Cargo.
attached to each piece of a multiple lot shipment for identification purposes.
compartment below the main deck (also called “lower love,’ ‘Lower hold,’ ‘pit’
A ULD shaped
to fit the lower deck cargo compartment. These units come in half sizes and
full sizes, related to the width across the airplane.
A term used
by motor carriers to designate small shipments that are handled as loose pieces
as opposed to full truckloads.
The deck on
which the major portion of the payload is carried.
carried on the main deck. These units come in half sizes and full sizes,
related to the width across the airplane.
placed on outer surface of shipping containers or packages such as address
labels, box specifications, caution, or directional warnings.
On a cargo
airplane, the maximum weight allowed and available for cargo. It includes the
weight of the cargo, containers, pallets, straps and nets.
Gross Weight, ULD
allowable combined weight of the ULD and its contents (payload).
which contain rules and rate information extracted from official tariffs.
Memorandum tariffs are published by many carriers and are available from these
carriers upon request.
rate applicable on each type of air cargo service no matter how small the
weight at which a freight rate is applicable (See Weight Break).
In the U.S.,
an agreed rate between an airline and a shipper which is not otherwise provided
in the current air freight rate tariff. These rates became legal when
airfreight was deregulated in November in 1977.
weight of a shipment less the weight of containers, pallets, nets or straps.
air waybill without identification of issuing carrier.
A unit load
device composed of a bottomless rigid shell used in combination with a pallet
and net assembly.
or heavy cargo that will not fit in the cargo areas of standard-body freighters
or passenger airplanes. Cargo the exceeds the standard dimensions of common
of standard dimensions on which goods are assembled and secured by nets and
straps before being loaded as a unit onto an airplane. It has a flat
undersurface to interface with ball, roller, or caster surfaces.
A webbing or
rope that can be secured to the pallet edges for restraining a pallet load. It
may be used with a nonstructural container.
service for the surface transport of shipments from shipper’s dock to
origination air terminal and from the air terminal of destination to receiver’s
dock. For airfreight, an additional charge is usually assessed. It may be
provide by an air freight forwarder, an integrated carrier, or by an
independent truck operator either separately or under contract to an airline.
shipments moving at container rates, it is the weight at which an additional
charge is incurred for each pound over the picot weight. For shipments moving
at bulk rates, the pivot weight is the weight at which it becomes less costly
to pay the minimum charge at the higher weight break, than to pay for the
actual weight at the lower weight break.
officially designated place at which a U.S. Customs officer is assigned with
authority to accept entries of merchandise, to collect duties, and to enforce
the various provisions of the U.S. Customs laws.
transportation trade practice under which the shipper pays transportation
shipments that have first claim on available air transport capacity,
transported at a premium charge.
provide to payer containing the name of person who signed for the package with
the date and time of delivery.
service provided by airlines where shippers arrange to have a shipment under
carrier surveillance tat each stage of transit from origin to destination. The
service may extend to pickup and delivery and may include armed guard
protection. See Signature Service.
installed in the floor of an airplane compartment that secures the ULD onto the
floor to prevent its movement during flight. Also, a net in front of the cargo
load to protect the flight crew and/or passengers.
term used to denote Dangerous Goods. These term is no longer used in
regulations. See Dangerous Goods and Hazardous Material.
service provided by the airlines using motor trucks, generally in conjunction
with an air movement.
system in an airplane or in terminal facilities consisting of various sizes of
balls or rollers over which ULDs con be moved.
standardized track on the main-deck of an airplane, designed to accept tie-down
fittings. It is typically a continuous track capable of accepting tie-down
fittings at any of the regularly spaced intervals provided. May also be
referred as a cargo track.
superstructure of any container or igloo.
One or more
pieces of freight being transported under the contracted authority of one air
Exportation Declaration (SED)
required for the export of goods from the U.S., when the value of a single
shipment of one commodity is more than $1,500, or when an export license is
Letter of Instruction
A form used
by a shipper to authorize an airline to issue an air waybill on the shipper’s
behalf. The for contains all details of shipment and authorizes the airline to
sign the air waybill in the name of the shipper.
designed to provide continuous responsibility for the custody of shipments in
transit, so named because a signature is required from each person handling the
shipment at each stage of its transit form origin to destination.
specialized service guaranteeing the delivery of small parcels within specified
express time limits, e.g. same day or next day. This traffic is subject to size
and weight limitations. Most passenger air carriers also provide this service
at airport ticket counters with delivery at destination baggage claim area.
Often referred to as counter to counter.
Rates that apply
to traffic under special conditions in selected makers. Examples of such rates
are container rates, exception ratings, and surface-air rates.
Commodity Rates (SCR)
applicable to certain classes of commodities. Usually these rates are applied
to commodities that move in large volume shipments in a given market. Hence,
specific commodity rates re usually lower than the general commodity rate
between the same pair of cities.
weight of a container or pallet when empty, including all liners and/or
weight allowance given to shippers as part of a unitization incentive program
setting forth applicable rules, rates, and charges for the movement of goods. A
tariff sets forth a contract of carriage for the shipper, the consignee, and
the carrier. Tariffs are sometimes published by the carriers themselves and by
a variety of publishing agencies, such as the Airline Tariff Publishing Company
(ATPCO), The Air Cargo Tariff (TACT) and Cargo Rates Services, Inc.
A ULD built
with insulating walls, doors, floor and roof which retard the rate of heat
transmission between eh inside and the outside of the ULD.
which secures a load to the ULD or the airplane restraint system.
standards offered by air freight carriers which permit the customer to select a
specific time frame for delivery. These service standards provide schedule
patterns based on same day, next day, second or third day delivery needs and
may include door-to-door, dock-to-dock or airport to airport service.
short ton (2,00 lb) as compared to a long or gross ton of 2,240 lb.
measurement of transportation productivity. One ton mile means one ton of cargo
flown one mile.
spelling of ton used in the air industry to denote a metric ton (1,000 kg or
international or metric version of ton mile. One tonne kilometer means one
tonne (metric) flown one kilometer.
system of following and recording movement intervals of shipments from origin
vehicle with a roller platform for hauling ULDs between the cargo terminal and
the airplane. Trailers range from 10-ft dollies to 40-ft ISO-fitted chassis.
The roller platform may be powered or unpowered.
Cargo Manifest (TACM)
under which air cargo imports move through the gateway city to the city of
final U.S. Customs destination for the collection of duty and other import
or technique of consolidation many small pieces of freight into a single unit,
usually through the use of aniline ULDs.
A number of
pieces of freight or cargo in a single box or container, or on a pallet held in
place by a net, strapping, or similar device to make them suitable for
transporting, stacking, or storage as a unit. It is also a single large item
packaged for transporting, stacking, or storage.
commonly used when referring to containers, pallets and pallet nets. The
purpose of the ULD is to enable individual pieces of cargo to be assembled into
standardized units to ease the rapid loading and unloading of airplanes and to
facilitate the transfer of cargo between airplanes have compatible handling and
charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the value of
the carriers limits of liability. See Declared Value for Carriage.
international multilateral treaty which regulates, in a uniform manner, the
conditions of international transportation by air. Among other things, it
establishes the international liability of air carriers and establishers the
monetary limits for loss, damage, and delay.
document for each airplane that controls the type and number of ULDs that can
be loaded, their allowable weight and information on alternating loading
levels at which the air cargo rate unit decreases as the shipment width
increases. Weight breaks normally occur at standard intervals, such as in
international shipments 100, 220, 440, 660, 1100, 2200 pounds. Or 45, 100, 200,
300, 500, 1000 kilograms.
Abreviations and Acronyms
Transport Association of America
Tariff Publishing Company
Aeronautics Board (Defunct)
Insurance and Freight
Time of Arrival
Air Transport Association
Organization for Standardization
Just in Time
Transportation Safety board